Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering

Top 20 Doctoral Program—National Research Council

Location

Dept. of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering
University of Houston
S222 Engineering Bldg 1,
Houston, TX 77204-4004
Phone: 713-743-4300
Campus Map

Faculty

Dr. Demetre J. Economou

Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Hugh Roy and Lillie Cranz Cullen Distinguished University Chair

Office Location: S239, Engineering Building 1

Tel: (713) 743-4320 | Fax: (713) 743-4323

Email: economou [at] uh [dot] edu

Education

  • Diploma, Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Greece (1981)
  • M.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (1983)
  • Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (1986)

Research Interests

Dr. Economou’s research focuses on plasma science and engineering as applied to etching and deposition of thin solid films for microelectronic device fabrication, nanotechnology, plasma medicine, and surface modification of materials. The projects described below are in collaboration with Prof. V. M. Donnelly.

Electron and ion energy distributions in low-temperature plasma reactors

The electron energy distribution function (EEDF), as well as the energy of ions bombarding the substrate (ion energy distribution or IED) are crucial for controlling etching rate and selectivity in advanced plasma processes used in the fabrication of devices with features down to 10 nm. Particle-in-Cell simulations with Monte Carlo Collisions (PIC-MCC) are employed to simulate the spatiotemporal evolution of the EEDF and IED in capacitively- and inductively-coupled plasmas. Of special interest is the application of tailored voltage waveforms to control the profile of the IED. Simulations are complemented with experimental measurements using Langmuir probes as well as non-intrusive optical diagnostics (EEDF), and retarding field energy analysis (IED). Recently we developed a methodology to obtain nearly monoenergetic (tight energy spread) ions bombarding the substrate. This was achieved by pulsing the plasma power and applying a synchronous DC bias voltage during the afterglow.

economou-ied-control.gif

In-Plasma Photo-Assisted Etching

While studying ion-assisted etching of p-type silicon in chlorine-containing plasmas near the threshold energy a new, important phenomenon was discovered: in-plasma photo-assisted etching. This mechanism was first discovered in mostly Ar plasmas with a few percent added Cl2, but was found to be even more important in pure Cl2 plasmas. Nearly monoenergetic ion energy distributions (IEDs) were obtained by applying a synchronous DC bias on a “boundary electrode” during the afterglow of a pulsed, inductively-coupled, Faraday-shielded plasma.  Such precisely controlled IEDs allowed the study of silicon etching as a function of ion energy, at near-threshold energies. Etching rates increased with the square root of the ion energy above the observed threshold of 16 eV, in agreement with published data (see figure). Surprisingly, a substantial etching rate was observed, independent of ion energy, when the ion energy was below the ion-assisted etching threshold. Experiments ruled out chemical etching by Cl atoms, etching assisted by Ar metastables, and etching mediated by holes and/or low energy electrons generated by Auger neutralization of low-energy ions, leaving photo-assisted etching as the only plausible explanation. Experiments were carried out with light and ions from the plasma either reaching the surface or being blocked, showing conclusively that the “sub-threshold” etching was due to photons, predominately at wavelengths <1700 Å. The photo-assisted etching (PAE) rate was equal to the ion-assisted etching rate at 36 eV, causing substantial complications for processes that require low ion energies to achieve high selectivity and low damage, such as atomic layer etching. Under these conditions, PAE likely plays an important role in profile evolution of features etched in Si with chlorine-containing plasmas, causing the commonly observed sloped sidewalls and undesired microtrenching. On the other hand, PAE can be beneficial by promoting extremely high selectivity in plasma etching of nanopatterns where, under certain conditions, plasmon resonance (plasmonics) may also play a role.

economou-fig-2.gif

Etching rate of blanket p-type Si as a function of E1/2 (E=ion energy), in different continuous wave argon/halogen plasmas. Pulsed DC bias.

Atomic Layer Etching (ALE)

Etching with atomic layer precision is a critical requirement for advancing nanoscience and nanotechnology. Current plasma etching techniques do not have the level of control or damage-free nature that is needed for patterning delicate sub-10 nm structures. In addition, ALE methods proposed in the past, based on pulsed gases with long reactant adsorption and purging steps, are very slow, even for etching extremely thin films. In this project, principles and techniques are developed for a practical method of etching surfaces, one atomic layer at a time, using a combination of pulsed plasma and monoenergetic ion bombardment. With this novel methodology it should be possible to obtain ALE at a substantially higher rate (~30X), compared to other methods. Plasma experiments and simulations are performed to understand the complex interaction between the pulsed plasma and the resulting ion energy distributions. Measurements of time-resolved ion bombardment energy and angular distributions are coupled with etching experiments including the effect of noble gas ion mass, and reactant (Cl, Br, I) mass and electronegativity on sub-surface lattice damage and etching with monolayer precision. Plasma and surface diagnostics are employed to measure product removal rate as a function of chemisorbed layer surface coverage and substrate damage.

Low Temperature Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas

Interest in low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasmas is fueled to a large extent by realized and potential biomedical applications. For selected area exposure, so-called atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ) are most common. The plasma generated by this source extends up to several cm from the end of the tube where it mixes with open air, making it ideal for treating specimens, including bacteria-covered surfaces, or living tissue. Although the jet appears to be continuous, it consists of periodic streamers or “bullets” that propagate at speeds of 10 km/s or more. This project is a combined experimental-simulation study of APPJs interacting with surfaces. A schematic of the experimental setup is shown in the figure below. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES), in a wide range of wavelengths (UV to near IR), is the main plasma diagnostic. We are developing a new OES technique to be able to probe the last 100 nm of gas near a surface. At the same time, we are employing a plasma transport and reaction fluid model to predict the spatiotemporal profiles of plasma species and electric field. The physics of bullet interaction with specimens is of particular interest. The fluxes of important species (e.g., O atoms and ozone in the case of He plasma gas in an O2 ambient) on the surface of the specimen are predicted for both insulating and conducting surfaces, and compared to data.

economou-plasma-jet.jpg

An atmospheric pressure plasma jet impinging on a quartz substrate.

Nanopantography

In nanopantography, standard photolithography, thin film deposition, and etching are used to fabricate arrays of ion-focusing micro-lenses (e.g., small round holes through a metal/insulator structure) on a substrate such as a silicon wafer.  The substrate is then placed in a vacuum chamber, a broad area collimated beam of ions is directed at the substrate, and electric potentials are applied to the lens arrays such that the ions focus at the bottoms of the holes (e.g., on the wafer surface).  When the wafer is tilted off normal (with respect to the ion beam axis), the focal points in each hole are laterally displaced, allowing the focused beamlets to be rastered across the hole bottoms. In nanopantography, the desired pattern is replicated simultaneously in many closely spaced holes over an area limited only by the size of the broad-area ion beam.  With the proper choice of ions and downstream gaseous ambient, the method can be used to deposit or etch materials.  Data show that simultaneous impingement of an Ar+ beam and a Cl2 effusive beam on an array of 950 nm dia. lenses can be used to etch 10 nm dia. features into a Si substrate, a reduction of 95X. Simulations indicate that the focused “beamlet” diameter scale directly with lens diameter, thus a minimum feature size of ~1 nm should be possible with 90 nm dia. lenses. Thus far we have been able to write holes with diameter as small as 3 nm using a 230 nm diameter lens (see figure below). Transfer of patterns defined by nanopantography using highly selective plasma etching of Si, with the native silicon oxide as hard mask, can improve patterning speed and etch profile. With this method, arrays of high aspect ratio (>5) nanofeatures were fabricated in silicon with no mask undercut. The ability to fabricate complex patterns using nanopantography, followed by highly selective plasma etching, was also demonstrated. We expect nanopantography to become a viable method for overcoming one of the main obstacles in practical nanoscale fabrication – rapid, large-scale fabrication of virtually any shape and material nanostructure. Unlike all other focused ion or electron beam writing techniques, this self-aligned method is virtually unaffected by vibrations, thermal expansion, and other alignment problems that usually plague standard nanofabrication methods. This is because the ion focusing optics are built on the wafer.

economou-afm-sem.jpg

economou-hole.jpg

economou-uh-logo.gif

Interlocking "UH" logo developed using amplification by plasma etching of latent pattern produced by nanopantography. 80 of the 7.5 million lenses are shown. Thinnest line is ~ 13 nm.

Awards and Honors

  • 2011-2014: Editorial Board, Journal of Applied Physics & Applied Physics Letters.
  • 2011: W. T. Kittinger Teaching Excellence Award (Highest teaching honor of the College of Engineering)
  • 2010-present: Hugh Roy and Lillie Cranz Cullen Distinguished University Chair
  • 2009: Esther Farfel Award (Highest honor accorded to a UH faculty member)
  • 2008: Plasma Prize, Plasma Science and Technology Division, American Vacuum Society
  • 2008: Fluor Daniel Faculty Excellence Award, College of Engineering, University of Houston (Highest Award of the College of Engineering)
  • 2008: Senior Faculty Award for Excellence in Research and Scholarship, University of Houston (Highest research award of the University of Houston)
  • 2003: Fellow, American Vacuum Society
  • 2003: Outstanding Teaching Award, Cullen College of Engineering, University of Houston
  • 2002: Sigma Xi Faculty Research Award
  • Guest Editor: IEEE Trans. Plasma Science, Special Issues, August 1995, October 1999, August 2003 and October 2007
  • Guest Editor: Thin Solid Films, Special Issues, 2000, 2007
  • 1998-present: International Editorial Board, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing
  • 1999: Senior Faculty Research Excellence Award, College of Engineering, University of Houston
  • 1996-2010: John and Rebecca Moores Professor
  • 1995: Excellence in Research and Scholarship Award, University of Houston
  • 1992: Best Young Author Paper Award of the Journal of Electrochemical Society
  • 1991: Young Faculty Research Excellence Award, Cullen College of Engineering, University of Houston

Journal Papers / Refereed Journal Publications

  1. Qiaowei Lou, Sanbir Kaler, Vincent M. Donnelly and Demetre J. Economou,

    “Optical Emission Spectroscopic Studies and Comparisons of CH3F/CO2 and CH3F/O2 Inductively Coupled Plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 33, 021305

    , 2015
  2. Siyuan Tian, Vincent M. Donnelly and Demetre J. Economou,

    “Transfer of Nanopantography-Defined Patterns Using Highly Selective Plasma Etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 33, 030602

    , 2015
  3. Vladimir Samara, Jean-Francois de Marneffe, and Demetre J. Economou,

    “In-situ monitoring of etch uniformity using plasma emission interferometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B33, 031206

    , 2015
  4. Demetre J. Economou,

    “Pulsed Plasma Etching for Semiconductor Manufacturing,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 47, 303001, [Invited Topical Review]

    , 2014
  5. Erdinc Karakas, Sanbir Kaler, Qiaowei Lou, Vincent. M. Donnelly, and Demetre J. Economou,

    “Measurements of Absolute CO Number Densities in CH3F/O2 Inductively-Coupled Plasmas by Optical Emission Self-actinometry,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 47, 085203

    , 2014
  6. P. Diomede, Demetre J. Economou, T. Lafleur, J.-P. Booth, and S. Longo,

    “Radio-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas in hydrogen excited by tailored voltage waveforms: comparison of simulations with experiments,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 23, 065049 (2014). {This paper was selected by the Editors of PSST as a 2014 Highlight, see http://iopscience.iop.org/0963-0252/page/Highlights-of-2014}

    , 2014
  7. Paola Diomede and Demetre J. Economou,

    “Kinetic simulation of capacitively coupled plasmas driven by trapezoidal asymmetric voltage pulses,” J. Appl. Phys., 115, 233302

    , 2014
  8. Paola Diomede, Demetre J. Economou and Vincent M. Donnelly,

    “Instabilities in Capacitively Coupled Plasmas Driven by Asymmetric Trapezoidal Voltage Pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 42, 2822

    , 2014
  9. Weiye Zhu, Shyam Sridhar, Lei Liu, Eduardo Hernandez, Vincent M. Donnelly, and Demetre J. Economou,

    “Photo-Assisted Etching of Silicon in Chlorine- and Bromine-Containing Plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys., 115, 203303

    , 2014
  10. Demetre J. Economou,

    “Tailored ion energy distributions on plasma electrodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 31, 050823 [Invited paper commemorating the 60th Anniversary of the American Vacuum Society]

    , 2013
  11. E. Karakas, V. M. Donnelly, and D. J. Economou,

    “Langmuir Probe and Optical Emission Spectroscopy of CH3F/O2 Inductively Coupled Plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys., 113, 213301

    , 2013
  12. Erdinc Karakas, Vincent M. Donnelly and Demetre J. Economou,

    “Abrupt transitions in species number densities and plasma parameters in a CH3F/O2 inductively coupled plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 102, 034107

    , 2013
  13. H. Shin, W. Zhou, L. Liu, S. Sridhar, V. M. Donnelly, D. J. Economou, C. Lenox, and T. Lii,

    “Selective Etching of TiN over TaN and vice-versa in Chlorine-Containing Plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 31, 031305

    , 2013
  14. Paola Diomede, Doosik Kim and Demetre J. Economou,

    “Particle-in-cell simulation of electron and ion energy distributions in dc/rf hybrid capacitively-coupled plasmas,” AIChE J., 59(9), 3214. Special Issue of AIChE Journal in memory of Neal Amundson

    , 2013
  15. Zhuo Chen, John A. Mucha, Vincent M. Donnelly, and Demetre J. Economou,

    “Plasma Enhanced Layer-by-Layer Deposition and Nano-crystallization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 31, 061209

    , 2013
  16. H. Shin, W. Zhu, D. J. Economou and V. M. Donnelly,

    “The Surprising Importance of Photo-Assisted Etching of Silicon in Chlorine-Containing Plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 30, 021306 [10 pages]

    , 2012
  17. H. Shin, W. Zhu, D. J. Economou and V. M. Donnelly,

    “Ion Energy Distributions, Electron Temperatures and Electron Densities in Ar, Kr and Xe Pulsed Discharges,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 30, 031304 [5 pages]

    , 2012
  18. Michael D. Logue, Hyungjoo Shin, Weiye Zhu, Lin Xu, Vincent M. Donnelly, Demetre J. Economou, and Mark J. Kushner,

    “Ion Energy Distributions in Inductively Coupled Plasmas Having a Biased Boundary Electrode,” Plasma Sources Sci. & Technol., 21, 065009

    , 2012
  19. P. Diomede, D. J. Economou and V. M. Donnelly,

    “Rapid Calculation of the Ion Energy Distribution on a Plasma Electrode,” J. Appl Phys, 111, 123306.

    , 2012
  20. P. Diomede, S. Longo, D. J. Economou and M. Capitelli,

    “Hybrid Simulation of a DC-Enhanced Radio Frequency Capacitive Discharge in Hydrogen,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 45, 175204 [14 pages]

    , 2012
  21. H. Shin, W. Zhu, L. Xu, T. Ouk, D. J. Economou and V, M. Donnelly,

    “Control of ion energy distributions using a pulsed plasma with synchronous bias on a boundary electrode,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 20, 055001 [9 pages]  

    , 2011
  22. P. Diomede, M. Nikolaou and D. J. Economou,

    “Voltage Waveform to Achieve a Desired Ion Energy Distribution on a Substrate in Contact with Plasma,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 20, 045011 [9 pages]

    , 2011
  23. P. Diomede, V. M. Donnelly and D. J. Economou,

    “Particle-in-Cell Simulation of Ion Energy Distributions on an Electrode by Applying Tailored Bias Waveforms in the Afterglow of a Pulsed Plasma,” J. Appl. Phys., 109, 083302 [7 pages]

    , 2011
  24. Q. Li, Y.-K. Pu, M. A. Lieberman and D. J. Economou,

    “A Dynamic Model of Streamer Coupling for the Homogeneity of Glow-Like Dielectric Barrier Discharges at Near-Atmospheric Pressure,” accepted in Phys. Rev. E., 83, 046405 [7 pages]

    , 2011
  25. S. G. Belostotskiy, O. Tola, V. M. Donnelly, D. J. Economou, and N. Sadeghi,

    “Time and Space Resolved Measurements of Ar(1s5) Metastable Density in a Microplasma Using Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44, 145202

    , 2011
  26. G. Belostotskiy, O. Tola, V. M. Donnelly, D. J. Economou, and N. Sadeghi,

    “Gas Temperature and Electron Density Profiles in an Argon DC Microdischarge Measured by Optical Emission Spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys., 107, 053305, 7 pages

    , 2010
  27. D. J. Economou,

    “Modeling and Simulation of Fast Neutral Beam Sources for Materials Processing,” Plasma Processes and Polymers, 6, 308-319

    , 2009
  28. S. G. Belostotskiy, V. M. Donnelly, D. J. Economou, and N. Sadeghi,

    “Spatially Resolved Measurements of Argon Metastable (1s5) Density in a High Pressure Microdischarge Using Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 37, 852-858

    , 2009
  29. Z. Chen, V. M. Donnelly, D. J. Economou, L. Chen, M. Funk, and R. Sundararajan,

    “Measurement of electron temperatures and electron energy distribution functions in dual frequency capacitively-coupled CF4/O2 plasmas using trace rare gases-optical emission spectroscopy (TRG-OES),” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A., 27, 1159

    , 2009
  30. D. J. Economou,

    “Fast (10s -100s eV) Neutral Beams for Materials Processing,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 41, 024001 [11 pages]

    , 2008
  31. Lin Xu, Azeem Nasrullah, Zhiying Chen, Manish Jain, Demetre J. Economou, Paul Ruchhoeft, and Vincent M. Donnelly,

    “Etching of nanopatterns in silicon using nanopantography,” Appl Phys. Lett., 92, 013124

    , 2008
  32. Lin Xu, Lee Chen, Merritt Funk, Alok Ranjan, Mike Hummel, Ron Bravenec, Radha Sundararajan, Demetre J. Economou, and Vincent M. Donnelly,

    “Diagnostics of ballistic electrons in a dc/rf hybrid capacitively coupled discharge,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 93, 261502

    , 2008
  33. Sergey Belostotskiy, Rahul Khandelwal, Qiang Wang, Vincent M. Donnelly, Demetre J. Economou, and Nader Sadeghi,

    “Measurement of Electron Temperature and Density in an Argon Microdischarge by Laser Thomson Scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 92, 221507

    , 2008
  34. Sergey Belostotskiy, Vincent M. Donnelly, and Demetre J. Economou,

    “Influence of Gas Heating on High Pressure DC Microdischarge I-V Characteristics,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 17, 045018

    , 2008
  35. A. Ranjan, C. Helmbrecht, V. M. Donnelly, D. J. Economou, and G. Franz,

    “Effect of Surface Roughness on the Energy Distribution of Fast Neutrals and Residual Ions Extracted from a Neutral Beam Source,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B., 25, 258-263

    , 2007
  36. D. Economou,

    “Fundamentals and Applications of Ion-Ion Plasmas,” Appl. Surf. Science, 253, 6672-6680

    , 2007
  37. L. Xu, N. Sadeghi, V. M. Donnelly, and D. J. Economou,

    “Nickel Atom and Ion Density in an Inductively Coupled Plasma with an Internal Coil,” J. Appl. Phys., 101, 013304

    , 2007
  38. Q. Wang, F. Doll, V. M. Donnelly, D. J. Economou, N. Sadeghi, and G. Franz,

    “Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Effect of Gas Flow on Gas Temperature in an Atmospheric Pressure Microplasma,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 40, 4202-4211

    , 2007
  39. S. Belostotskyi, Q. Wang, V. M. Donnelly, D. J. Economou, and N. Sadeghi,

    “Three Dimensional Gas Temperature Measurements in Atmospheric Pressure Microdischarges Using Raman Scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 89, 251503

    , 2007
  40. S. K. Nam, D. J. Economou, and V. M. Donnelly,

    “Particle-in-Cell Simulation of Ion Beam Extraction from a Pulsed Plasma Through a Grid,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 16, 90-96

    , 2007
  41. Sang Ki Nam, Demetre J. Economou and Vincent M. Donnelly,

    “Generation of Fast Neutral Beams by Ion Neutralization in High Aspect Ratio Holes: A Particle-in-Cell Simulation Study,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 35, 1370-1378

    , 2007
  42. A. Ranjan, V. M. Donnelly, and D. J. Economou,

    “Energy Distribution and Flux of fast Neutrals and Residual Ions Extracted from a neutral beam Source,” J. Vac Sci. Technol. A, 24, 1839-1846

    , 2006
  43. O Polomarov, C. Theodosiou, I. Kaganovich, B. Ramamurthi, and D. J. Economou,

    “Self-Consistent Modeling of Non-Local Inductively Coupled Plasmas,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Science, 34, 767-785

    , 2006
  44. Q. Wang, D. J. Economou, and V. M. Donnelly,

    “Simulation of Direct Current Micro-Plasma Discharge in Helium at Atmospheric Pressure,” J. Appl. Phys., 100, 023301

    , 2006
  45. S. K. Nam, D. J. Economou, and V. M. Donnelly,

    “Particle-in-Cell Simulation of Beam Extraction Through a Hole in Contact with Plasma,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 39, 3994-4000

    , 2006
  46. L. Xu, D. J. Economou, V. M. Donnelly and P. Ruchhoeft,

    “Extraction of a Nearly Monoenergetic Ion Beam from a Pulsed Plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 87, 041502

    , 2005
  47. L. Xu, S. C. Vemula, M. Jain, S. K. Nam, V. M. Donnelly, D. J. Economou, and P. Ruchhoeft,

    “Nanopantography: A New Method for Massively Parallel Nanopatterning over Large Areas,” Nano Lett., 5, 2563-2568

    , 2005
  48. O Polomarov, C. Theodosiou, I. Kaganovich, B. Ramamurthi, and D. J. Economou,

    “Effectiveness of electron-cyclotron and transmission resonance heating in inductively coupled plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas, 12, 104505

    , 2005
  49. Q. Wang, I. Koleva, V. M. Donnelly, and D. J. Economou,

    “Spatially Resolved Diagnostics of a Direct Current Atmospheric Pressure Helium Micro-plasma,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 38, 1690-1697

    , 2005
  50. S. Nam, V. M. Donnelly and D. J. Economou,

    “Particle-in-cell simulation of ion flow through a hole in contact with plasma,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 33, 232

    , 2005
  51. S.G. Belostotsky, D.J. Economou, D.V. Lopaev, and T.V. Rakhimova,

    “Negative Ion Destruction by O(3P) Atoms and O2(a1∆g) Molecules in an Oxygen Plasma,” Plasma Sources Science and Technology, 14, 532-542

    , 2005
  52. D. Economou,

    “Electronegative Plasma Reactor Engineering,” in Gaseous Dielectrics X, edited by L. Christophorou, J. Olthoff, and P. Vassiliou, p. 157-166, Springer

    , 2004
  53. D. Kim and D. J. Economou,

    “Simulation of a Two-Dimensional Sheath over a Flat Insulator-Conductor Interface on a RF Biased Electrode in a High Density Plasma,” J. Appl. Phys., 95, 3311-3318

    , 2004
  54. S. K. Nam and D. J. Economou,

    “Two-Dimensional Simulation of a Miniaturized Inductively Coupled Plasma,” J. Appl. Phys., 95, 2272-2277

    , 2004
  55. B. Ramamurthi, D. J. Economou, and I. Kaganovich,

    “Effect of Electron Energy Distribution Function on Power Deposition and Plasma Density in an Inductively Coupled Discharge at Very Low Pressures,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 12, 302-312

    , 2003
  56. B. Ramamurthi, D. J. Economou, and I. Kaganovich,

    “Effect of non-local electron conductivity on power absorption and plasma density profiles in low pressure inductively coupled discharges,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 12, 170

    , 2003
  57. D. Kim and D. J. Economou,

    “Plasma Molding over Deep Trenches and the Resulting Ion and Energetic Neutral Distributions,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 21, 1248-1253

    , 2003
  58. D. Kim and D. J. Economou,

    “Simulation of Plasma Molding over a Ring on a Flat Surface,” J. Appl. Phys., 94, 3740-3747

    , 2003
  59. D. Kim and D. J. Economou,

    “Simulation of a Two-Dimensional Sheath over a Flat Wall with an Insulator-Conductor Interface Exposed to a High Density Plasma,” J. Appl. Phys., 94, 2852-2857

    , 2003
  60. D. Kim, D. J. Economou, J. R. Woodworth, P. A. Miller, R. J. Shul, I. C. Abraham, B. P. Aragon, and T. W. Hamilton,

    “Plasma Molding Over Surface Topography: Simulation and Measurement of Ion Fluxes, Energies and Angular Distributions Over Trenches in RF High Density Plasmas,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 31, 691-702

    , 2003
  61. J. R. Woodworth, P. A. Miller, R. J. Shul, I. C. Abraham, B. P. Aragon, T. W. Hamilton, C. G. Willison, D. Kim, and D. J. Economou,

    “An experimental and theoretical study of ion distributions near 300-μm-tall steps on rf-biased wafers in high density plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 21, 147-155

    , 2003
  62. B. Ramamurthi and D. J. Economou,

    “Pulsed Power Plasma Reactors: Two Dimensional Electropositive Discharge Simulation in a GEC Reference Cell,” Plasma Sources Science and Technology, 11, 324-332

    , 2002
  63. B. Ramamurthi and D. J. Economou,

    “Metastable argon density evolution in a pulsed ICP discharge,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 30(1), 152

    , 2002
  64. B. Ramamurthi and D. J. Economou,

    “Two-Dimensional Pulsed-Plasma Simulation of a Chlorine Discharge,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 20, 467-478

    , 2002
  65. C.-K. Kim and D. J. Economou,

    “Plasma Molding over Surface Topography: Energy and Angular Distributions of Ions Extracted out of Large Holes,” J. Appl. Phys., 91, 2594-2603

    , 2002
  66. D. Kim and D. J. Economou,

    “Plasma Molding over Surface Topography: Simulation of Ion Flow and Energy and Angular Distributions over Steps in RF High Density Plasmas,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 30(5), 2048-2058

    , 2002
  67. D. Kim and D. J. Economou,

    “Energy and angular distributions of ions and neutrals extracted from a slot in contact with a high density plasma,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 30(1), 126

    , 2002
  68. Doosik Kim and Demetre J. Economou,

    “Plasma Molding over Surface Topography,” JSME International Journal, Series B, 45(1), 117-122

    , 2002
  69. T. Panagopoulos, V. Midha, D. Kim and D. J. Economou,

    “Three-Dimensional Simulation of Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactors,” J. Appl. Phys., 91, 2687-2696

    , 2002
  70. V. Midha, B. Ramamurthi, and D. J. Economou,

    “Time Evolution of an Ion-Ion Plasma after the Application of a Direct Current Bias,” J. Appl. Phys., 91, 6282-6287

    , 2002
  71. B. Ramamurthi and D. J. Economou,

    “Two-dimensional simulation of a pulsed electronegative discharge,” Journal de Physique (IV), 11(Pr3), 163-169

    , 2001
  72. I. D. Kaganovich, B. N. Ramamurthi, and D. J. Economou,

    “Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Charged Species in the Afterglow of Plasmas Containing Negative Ions,” Phys. Rev. E, 64, 036402

    , 2001
  73. S. K. Kanakasabapathy, L. J. Overzet, V. Midha, and D. J. Economou,

    “Alternating Fluxes of Positive and Negative Ions from an Ion-Ion Plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 78, 22-24

    , 2001
  74. S. Panda, D. J. Economou, and L. Chen,

    “Anisotropic Etching of Polymer Thin Films by High Energy (100s of eV) Oxygen Atom Neutral Beams,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A19, 398-404

    , 2001
  75. V. Midha and D. J. Economou,

    “Dynamics of an Ion-Ion Plasma under Radio Frequency Bias,” J. Appl. Phys., 90, 1102

    , 2001
  76. D. J. Economou,

    “Modeling and Simulation of Plasma Etching Reactors for Microelectronics,” Thin Solid Films, 365, 348-367

    , 2000
  77. I. Kaganovich, D. J. Economou, B. N. Ramamurthi, and V. Midha,

    “Negative Ion Density Fronts During Ignition and Extinction of Plasmas in Electronegative Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 84, 1918-1921

    , 2000
  78. I. Kaganovich, D.B. Ramamurthi, and D. J. Economou,

    “Self-Trapping of Negative Ions due to Electron Detachment in the Afterglow of Electronegative Gas Plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 76, 2844-2846

    , 2000
  79. J. Feldsien, D. Kim, and D. J. Economou,

    “SiO2 Etching in Inductively Coupled Plasmas: Surface Chemistry and Two-Dimensional Simulations,” Thin Solid Films, 374, 311-325

    , 2000
  80. S. Panda, D. J. Economou, and M. Meyyappan,

    “Effect of Metastable Oxygen Molecules in High-Density Power Modulated Oxygen Discharges,” J. Appl Phys., 87, 8323-8333

    , 2000
  81. V. Midha and D. J. Economou,

    “Spatiotemporal Evolution of a Pulsed Chlorine Discharge,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 9, 256-269

    , 2000
  82. C.-K. Kim, N. A. Kubota, and D. J. Economou,

    “Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Silicon Surface Smoothing by Low-Energy Argon Cluster Impact,” J. Appl. Phys., 86(12), 6758-6762

    , 1999
  83. D. J. Economou,

    “Plasma Reactor Engineering,” in Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering, Vol. 6, p. 237, edited by R. C. Alkire and D. M. Kolb, Wiley-VCH

    , 1999
  84. D. J. Economou, N. A. Kubota, and R. S. Wise,

    “Plasmoid Formation and Multiple Steady States in a Low Pressure Inductively Coupled Electronegative Plasmas,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 27, 60

    , 1999
  85. N. A. Kubota, and D. J. Economou,

    “A Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Ultrathin Oxide Films on Silicon: Growth by Thermal O Atoms and Sputtering by 100 eV Ar+ Ions,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 27(5), 1416-1425

    , 1999
  86. N. A. Kubota, and D. J. Economou,

    “Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Ion-Induced Rearrangements of Ultrathin Oxide Films on Silicon,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 27, 106

    , 1999
  87. N. Gupta, V. Midha, V. Balakotaiah, and D. J. Economou,

    “Bifurcation Analysis of Thermal Runaway in Microwave Heating of Ceramics,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 146(2), 4659-4665

    , 1999
  88. S. Panda, J. Kim, B. H. Weiller, D. J. Economou, and D. M. Hoffman,

    “Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition of Titanium Nitride Films from Tetrakis (ethylmethylamido) titanium and ammonia,” Thin Solid Films, 357, 125-131

    , 1999
  89. S.-K. Nam, C. B. Shin, and D. J. Economou,

    “Two-dimensional plasma reactor simulation with self-consistent coupling of gas flow with plasma transport,” Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 2, 271-279

    , 1999
  90. T. Panagopoulos and D. J. Economou,

    “Plasma Sheath Model and Ion Energy Distribution for All Radio Frequencies,” J. Appl. Phys., 85, 3435

    , 1999
  91. D. J. Economou, J. Feldsien, and R. S. Wise,

    “Transport and Reaction in Inductively Coupled Plasmas for Microelectronics,” in Electron Kinetics and Applications of Glow Discharges, edited by U. Kortshagen and L. D. Tsendin, NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Plenum

    , 1998
  92. D. J. Economou, T. L. Panagopoulos, and M. Meyyappan,

    “Examining Scale-Up and Computer Simulation in Tool Design for 300-mm wafer Processing,” Micro, 16(7), 101-113

    , 1998
  93. D. P. Lymberopoulos, V. I. Kolobov, and D. J. Economou,

    “Fluid Simulation of a Pulsed-Power Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 16, 564-571

    , 1998
  94. N. A. Kubota, D. J. Economou, and S. Plimpton,

    “Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Low Energy (25-200 eV) Argon Ion Interactions with Silicon Surfaces: Sputter Yields and Product Formation Pathways,” J. Appl. Phys., 83, 4055-4063

    , 1998
  95. V. I. Kolobov and D. J. Economou,

    “Ion-Ion Plasmas in Weakly Collisional Discharges in Electronegative Gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 72, 656-658

    , 1998
  96. V. Midha and D. J. Economou,

    “A Two-Dimensional Model of Chemical Vapor Infiltration with Radio Frequency Heating II: Strategies to Achieve Complete Densification,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 145, 3569-3580

    , 1998
  97. J. Johannes, T. Bartel, G. A. Hebner, J. Woodworth, and D. J. Economou,

    “Direct Simulation Monte Carlo of Inductively Coupled Plasma and Comparison with Experiments,” J. Electrochem Soc., 144, 2448-2455

    , 1997
  98. V. I. Kolobov and D. J. Economou,

    “Anomalous Skin Effect in Gas Discharge Plasmas,” Plasma Sources Sci. & Technol., 6, R1-R17

    , 1997
  99. V. I. Kolobov, D. P. Lymberopoulos, and D. J. Economou,

    “Electron Kinetics and Non-Joule Heating in Near Collisionless Inductively Coupled Plasmas,” Physical Review E, 55, 3408

    , 1997
  100. V. Midha and D. J. Economou,

    “A Two-Dimensional Model of Chemical Vapor Infiltration with Radio Frequency Heating,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 144, 4062-4071

    , 1997
  101. D. J. Economou,

    “The Chemistry of Plasma Etching,” in The Chemistry of Electronic Materials, H. B. Pogge, editor, pp. 251-322, Marcel Dekker, Inc.

    , 1996
  102. D. J. Economou and T. J. Bartel,

    “Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) of Rarefied Gas Flow During Etching of Large Diameter (300 mm) Wafers,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 24, 131

    , 1996
  103. D. Lymberopoulos, R. Wise, D. J. Economou, and T. Bartel,

    “Ion Density and Temperature Distribution in an Inductively Coupled High Plasma Density Reactor,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 24, 129

    , 1996
  104. D. M. Hoffman, S. P. Rangarajan, S. D. Athavale, D. J. Economou, J.-R. Liu, Z. Zheng, and W.-K. Chu,

    “Chemical vapor deposition of aluminum and gallium nitride thin films from metalorganic precursors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 14, 306-311

    , 1996
  105. J. Johannes, T. Bartel, D. Economou, D. Lymberopoulos and R. Wise,

    “Simulation Images from a Low Pressure Chlorine Plasma Reactor Using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Method,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 24, 127

    , 1996
  106. R. Wise, D. Lymberopoulos and D. J. Economou,

    “Rapid Two-Dimensional Self-Consistent Simulation of Inductively Coupled Plasma and Comparison with Experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 68, 2499

    , 1996
  107. S. Athavale and D. J. Economou,

    “Realization of Atomic Layer Etching (ALET) of Silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 14, 3702

    , 1996
  108. D. J. Economou, T. J. Bartel, R. S. Wise and D. P. Lymberopoulos,

    “Two-Dimensional Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) of Reactive Ion and Neutral Flow in a High Density Plasma Reactor,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 23, 581-590

    , 1995
  109. D. M. Hoffman, S. P. Rangarajan, S. D. Athavale, D. J. Economou, J.-R. Liu, Z. Zheng, and W.-K. Chu,

    “Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon, germanium and tin nitride thin films from metal-organic precursors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 13, 820-825

    , 1995
  110. D. P. Lymberopoulos and D. J. Economou,

    “Two-Dimensional Self-Consistent Radio Frequency Plasma Simulations Relevant to the Gaseous Electronics Conference (GEC) Reference Cell,” Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100, 473-494

    , 1995
  111. D. P. Lymberopoulos and D. J. Economou,

    “Two-Dimensional Simulation of Polysilicon Etching with Chlorine in a High Density Plasma Reactor,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 23, 573-580

    , 1995
  112. D. P. Lymberopoulos and D. J. Economou,

    “Spatiotemporal Electron Dynamics in Radio Frequency Glow Discharges,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 28, 727-737

    , 1995
  113. P. Jiang, D. J. Economou, and C. B. Shin,

    “Effect of Power Modulation on Radical Concentration and Uniformity in a Single-Wafer Plasma Reactor,” Plasma Chemistry Plasma Process., 15, 383-408

    , 1995
  114. R. S. Wise, D. P. Lymberopoulos and D. J. Economou,

    “A Two-Region Model of a Radio Frequency Low-Pressure High-Density Glow Discharge,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 4, 317-331

    , 1995
  115. S. D. Athavale and D. J. Economou,

    “Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Atomic Layer Etching (ALET) of Silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 13, 966-971

    , 1995
  116. D. M. Hoffman, S. P. Rangarajan, S. D. Athavale, D. J. Economou, J.-R. Liu, Z. Zheng, and W.-K. Chu,

    “Plasma Enhanced Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition of Germanium Nitride Thin Films,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 335, 3-7

    , 1994
  117. D. M. Hoffman, S. P. Rangarajan, S. D. Athavale, S. C. Deshmukh, D. J. Economou, J.-R. Liu, Z. Zheng, and W.-K. Chu,

    “Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Nitride Films from Metalorganic Precursors,” J. Mater. Res., 12,  3019-3021

    , 1994
  118. D. P. Lymberopoulos and D. J. Economou,

    “Modeling and Simulation of Glow Discharge Plasma Reactors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 12, 1229-1236

    , 1994
  119. N. L. Bassett and D. J. Economou,

    “Effect of Cl2 Additions to an Argon Glow Discharge,” J. Appl. Phys., 75, 1931-1939

    , 1994
  120. C. R. Koemtzopoulos, D. J. Economou, and R. Pollard,

    “Hydrogen Dissociation in a Microwave Discharge for Diamond Deposition,” Diamond and Related Materials, 2, 25-35

    , 1993
  121. D. P. Lymberopoulos and D. J. Economou,

    “Fluid Simulations of Glow Discharges: Effect of Metastable Atoms in Ar,” J. Appl. Phys., 73, 3668-3679

    , 1993
  122. D. P. Lymberopoulos and D. J. Economou,

    “Fluid Simulations of Radio Frequency Glow Discharges: Two-Dimensional Argon Discharge Including Metastables,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 63, 2478-2480

    , 1993
  123. E. S. Aydil and D. J. Economou,

    “Modeling of Plasma Etching Reactors Including Wafer Heating Effects,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 140, 1471-1481

    , 1993
  124. J. Morrel, D. J. Economou, and N. Amundson,

    “Chemical Vapor Infiltration of SiC with Volume Heating,” J. Mater. Res., 8, 1057-1067

    , 1993
  125. P. Jiang and D. J. Economou,

    “Temporal Evolution of the Electron Energy Distribution Function in Oxygen and Chlorine Gases under DC and AC Fields,” J. Appl. Phys., 73, 8151-8160

    , 1993
  126. Q. Xiong, Y. Y. Xue, P. Hor, C. W. Chu, M. Davis, J. Wolfe, S. Deshmukh, and D. Economou,

    “Effect of pressure on the critical current density of YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films,” Physica C205, 307

    , 1993
  127. S. Deshmukh and D. J. Economou,

    “Remote Plasma Etching Reactors: Modeling and Experiment,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 11, 206-215

    , 1993
  128. E. Aydil and D. Economou,

    “Combined Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Chlorine RF Glow Discharges. I: Theoretical,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 139, 1396-1406

    , 1992
  129. E. Aydil and D. Economou,

    “Combined Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Chlorine RF Glow Discharges. II: Experimental,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 139, 1406-1412

    , 1992
  130. F. Fong, S. Deshmukh, M. Davis, D. Stumbo, J. Wolfe, and D. Economou,

    “Resolution Limits of Ion Milling for Fabricating Y1Ba2Cu3Ox Nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys., 71, 2461

    , 1992
  131. J. Morrel, D. Economou and N. Amundson,

    “A Mathematical Model for Chemical Vapor Infiltration with Volume Heating,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 139, 328-336

    , 1992
  132. J. Morrel, D. J. Economou, and N. Amundson,

    “Pulsed-Power Volume-Heating Chemical Vapor Infiltration,” J. Mater. Res., 7, 2447-2457

    , 1992
  133. S. Deshmukh and D. J. Economou,

    “Factors Affecting the Cl Atom Density in a Chlorine Discharge,” J. Appl. Phys., 72, 4597-4607

    , 1992
  134. C. B. Shin and D. Economou,

    “Forced and Natural Convection Effects on the Shape Evolution of Cavities during Wet Chemical Etching,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 138, 527-538

    , 1991
  135. D. Economou, E. Aydil, and G. Barna,

    “In Situ Monitoring of Etching Uniformity in Plasma Reactors,” Solid State Technology, 34, 107-111

    , 1991
  136. Eray Aydil and D. Economou,

    “Multiple Steady-States in a Radio Frequency Chlorine Glow Discharge,” J. Appl. Phys., 69, 109-114

    , 1991
  137. M. Davis, J. Wosik, K. Foster, S. Deshmukh, H. Rampersad, S. Shah, P. Siesmen, D. Economou, and J. Wolfe,

    “Deposition of High Quality Y1Ba2Cu3Ox Thin Films over Large Areas by Pulsed Laser Ablation with Substrate Scanning,” J. Appl. Phys., 69, 7182-7188

    , 1991
  138. Ping Jiang and D. Economou,

    “Wet Etching of GaAs Using a Novel Rotating Cell Reactor,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 138, L28-L29

    , 1991
  139. S.-K. Park and D. Economou,

    “A Mathematical Model for Etching of Silicon Using Tetrafluoromethane in a Radial Flow Plasma Reactor,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 138, 1499-1508

    , 1991
  140. Y. J. Zhao, W. K. Chu, D. K. Christen, E. C. Jones, M. F. Davis, J. C. Wolfe, S. C. Deshmukh, and D. J. Economou,

    “Linewidth Dependence of Critical Current Density in Y1Ba2Cu3Ox Thin Film Microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 59, 1129-1131

    , 1991
  141. Y. J. Zhao, W. K. Chu, M. F. Davis, J. C. Wolfe, S. C. Deshmukh, D. J. Economou, and A. McGuire,

    “Radiation Damages and Flux Pinning in YBCO Thin Films,” Physica C, 184, 144-148

    , 1991
  142. C. B. Shin and D. Economou,

    “Mass Transfer by Natural and Forced Convection in Open Cavities,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 33, 2191-2205

    , 1990
  143. S.-K. Park and D. Economou,

    “Numerical Simulation of a Single-Wafer Isothermal Plasma Etching Reactor,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 137, 2624-2634

    , 1990
  144. S.-K. Park and D. Economou,

    “Analysis of a Pulsed-Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor with Recycle,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 137, 2103-2116

    , 1990
  145. S.-K. Park and D. Economou,

    “Parametric Studies of a Radio Frequency Glow Discharge Using a Continuum Model,” J. Appl. Phys., 68, 4888-4890

    , 1990
  146. S.-K. Park and D. Economou,

    “Analysis of Low Pressure RF Glow Discharges Using a Continuum Model,” J. Appl. Phys., 68, 3904-3915

    , 1990
  147. C. B. Shin and D. Economou,

    “Effect of Transport and Reaction on the Shape Evolution of Cavities during Wet Chemical Etching,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 136, 1997-2004

    , 1989
  148. D. Economou, S.-K. Park, and G. Williams,

    “Uniformity of Etching in Parallel Plate Plasma Reactors,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 136, 188-198

    , 1989
  149. S.-K. Park and D. Economou,

    “A Mathematical Model for a Plasma-Assisted Downstream Etching Reactor,” J. Appl. Phys., 66, 3256-3267

    , 1989
  150. D. Economou and R. Alkire,

    “A Mathematical Model for a Parallel Plate Plasma Etching Reactor,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 135, 2786-2794

    , 1988
  151. D. Economou and R. Alkire,

    “Effect of Potential Field on Ion Deflection and Shape Evolution of Trenches during Plasma-Assisted Etching,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 135, 941-949

    , 1988
  152. D. Economou, D. Evans, and R. Alkire,

    “A Time-Average Model of the RF Plasma Sheath,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 135, 756-763

    , 1988
  153. D. Economou and R. Alkire,

    “Two-Phase Mass Transfer in Channel Electrolyzers with Gas-Liquid Flow,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 132, 601-608

    , 1985
  154. R. Alkire and D. Economou,

    “Transient Behavior during Film Removal in Diffusion-Controlled Plasma Etching,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 132, 648-656

    , 1985
  155. C. Philippopoulos, D. Economou, C. Economou, and J. Marangozis,

    “Norbornadiene-Quadricyclane System in the Photochemical Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev., 22, 627

    , 1983

Books

  1. D. J. Economou,

    “Computational Modeling in Semiconductor Manufacturing,” AIChE Journal (book review)

    , 1996

Editorials / Edited Volumes

  1. M. Meyyappan, D. J. Economou, and S. W. Butler, eds.,

    Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Control, Diagnostics, and Modeling in Semiconductor Manufacturing, The Electrochemical Society Inc., Vol. 97-9

    , 1997
  2. M. Meyyappan, D. J. Economou, and S. W. Butler, eds.,

    Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Control, Diagnostics, and Modeling in Semiconductor Manufacturing, The Electrochemical Society Inc., Vol. 95-2

    , 1995
  3. R. C. Alkire, N. Masuko, Y. Ito, D. R. Sadoway, and D. J. Economou, eds.,

    Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Electrochemical Processing of Tailored Materials, The Electrochemical Society Inc., Vol. 93-12

    , 1993

Conference Proceedings Publications

  1. B. White, Q. Wang, D. J. Economou, P. J. Wolf, T. Jacobs, and J. Fourcher,

    “Neutral oxygen beam stripping of photoresist on porous ultra low-k materials,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Interconnect Technology Conference, June 2-4, 2003 San Francisco, p. 153

    , 2003
  2. * D. Kim and D. J. Economou,

    “Multidimensional Plasma Sheaths and Resulting Ion/Fast Neutral Distributions at the Substrate Surface,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Sputtering and Plasma Processes, ISSP 2003, pp. 55-62, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan

    , 2003
  3. * Badri Ramamurthi and Demetre J. Economou,

    “Two-Dimensional Simulation of Pulsed power Electronegative Plasmas,” in Proceedings of the Symposium Fundamental Gas-Phase and Surface Chemistry in Vapor-Phase Deposition II, and Process Control, Diagnostics and Modeling in Semiconductor Manufacturing IV, edited by M. T. Swihart, M. D. Allendorf and M. Meyyappan, The Electrochemical Society, vol. PV 2001-13, pp. 405-414

    , 2001
  4. * Chang-Koo Kim and Demetre J. Economou,

    “Energy and Angular Distribution of Ions Extracted from a Large Hole in Contact with a High Density Plasma,” in Proceedings of the Symposium Fundamental Gas-Phase and Surface Chemistry in Vapor-Phase Deposition II, and Process Control, Diagnostics and Modeling in Semiconductor Manufacturing IV, edited by M. T. Swihart, M. D. Allendorf and M. Meyyappan, The Electrochemical Society, vol. PV 2001-13, pp. 308-315

    , 2001
  5. * D. J. Economou,

    “Multiscale Modeling in Plasma Engineering and Parallels to Electrochemical Engineering,” in Tutorials in Electrochemical Engineering-Mathematical Modeling, Electrochemical Society Proceedings Volume, R. F. Savinell, editor

    , 1999
  6. * V. Midha and D.J. Economou,

    “Effect of Geometry on CVI with RF Heating", Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, 19(3-4)

    , 1998
  7. * J. Feldsien and D. J. Economou,

    “Parametric Investigation of Plasma Uniformity in a Dome-Shaped Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactor,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Control, Diagnostics, and Modeling in Semiconductor Manufacturing, M. Meyyappan, D. J. Economou, and S. W. Butler, eds., The Electrochemical Society Inc., Vol. 97-9, pp. 260-267

    , 1997
  8. * V. Midha and D. J. Economou,

    “A Two-Dimensional Model of Chemical Vapor Infiltration with Radio Frequency Heating,” in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Chemical Vapor Deposition and EUROCVD-11, Paris, France, edited by M. D. Allendorf and C. Bernard, The Electrochemical Society Proceedings Volume PV 97-25, pp. 528-535

    , 1997
  9. D. J. Economou,

    “Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) of Low Pressure Plasma Reactors,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Plasma and Fluid Simulation for Materials Processing, edited by K. Nanbu, Vol. 10, pp. 83-90, published by the Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan

    , 1997
  10. D. J. Economou and T. Bartel,

    “Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) of Semiconductor Manufacturing Processes,” in Proceedings of the 11th Plasma Processing Symposium, edited by G. S. Mathad, M. Meyyappan, and D. W. Hess, The Electrochemical Society, PV-96-12, 70-82

    , 1996
  11. D. J. Economou, D. M. Hoffman, S. P. Rangarajan, S. D. Athavale, J.-R. Liu, Z. Zheng, and W.-K. Chu,

    “Chemical Vapor Deposition of Aluminum and Gallium Nitride Thin Films from Metalorganic Precursors,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on III-V Nitride Materials and Processes, edited by T. Moustakas and J. P. Dismukes, and S.J. Pearton, The Electrochemical Society Inc., Vol. 96-11, p. 69

    , 1996
  12. J. Johannes, T. Bartel, D. J. Economou, G. Hebner, R. Wise, and J. Woodworth,

    “Direct Simulation Monte Carlo of Inductively Coupled Plasma and Comparison with Experiments,” in Proceedings of the 11th Plasma Processing Symposium, edited by G. S. Mathad, M. Meyyappan, and D. W. Hess, The Electrochemical Society, PV-96-12, 20-38

    , 1996
  13. R. S. Wise, D. P. Lymberopoulos and D. J. Economou,

    “A TCAD Simulation Tool for Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactors and Comparison with Experiments,” in Proceedings of the 11th Plasma Processing Symposium, edited by G. S. Mathad, M. Meyyappan, and D. W. Hess, The Electrochemical Society, PV-96-12, 11-19

    , 1996
  14. * D. P. Lymberopoulos R. Wise, and D. J. Economou,

    Modeling and Simulation of Two-Dimensional Reactive Plasma Flow in Inductively Coupled Reactors, in Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Control, Diagnostics, and Modeling in Semiconductor Manufacturing, M. Meyyappan, D. J. Economou, and S. W. Butler, eds., The Electrochemical Society Inc., Vol. 95-2, pp. 588-595

    , 1995
  15. C. R. Koemtzopoulos, D. J. Economou, and R. Pollard,

    “Influence of Substrate Placement on Plasma-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond,” in The Synthesis and Processing of Electronic Materials, Topical Conference Preprints, AIChE Conference, San Francisco, CA

    , 1994
  16. D. P. Lymberopoulos and D. J. Economou,

    Modeling and Simulation of Inductively Coupled High Density Plasma Sources, in Proceedings of the 10th Plasma Processing Symposium, edited by G. S. Mathad and D. W. Hess, The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 94-20, pp. 1-12

    , 1994
  17. D. J. Economou,

    “Developments in Wet Etching and Deposition for Pattern Delineation,” in Trends in Electrochemistry, Council of Scientific Research Integration

    , 1993
  18. D. J. Economou,

    “Modeling Potential Distribution, Transport and Reaction in Gas Plasmas,” in Proc. of the 2nd International Symp. on Electrochemical Processing of Tailored Materials, R. C. Alkire, N. Masuko, Y. Ito, D. R. Sadoway, and D. J. Economou, eds., The Electrochemical Society Inc., 93-12, 1

    , 1993
  19. D. J. Economou and D. P. Lymberopoulos,

    “Self-Consistent Simulation of RF Glow Discharges Coupled with Neutral Transport and Reaction,” in Proc. 3rd International Symp. on Process Phys. and Modeling in Semicond. Technol., G. R. Srinivasan, K. Taniguchi, and C. S. Murthy, eds., The Electrochemical Society Inc., 93-6

    , 1993
  20. S. Deshmukh, S. Athavale and D. J. Economou,

    “Radical Beam Etching: Application to Patterning of YBa2Cu3O6+x High Tc Superconducting Thin Films,” in Proc. of International Symp. on Highly Selective Dry Etching and Damage Control, G. S. Mathad and Y. Horiike, eds., The Electrochemical Society Inc., 93-21, 235

    , 1993
  21. E. S. Aydil and D. J. Economou,

    “Modeling of Plasma Etching Reactors Including Wafer Heating Effects,” in Proc. 9th Plasma Process. Symp., The Electrochemical Society Inc., edited by G. S. Mathad and D. W. Hess, 92-18, 22

    , 1992
  22. D. Economou and S.-K. Park,

    “Modeling and Analysis of Pulsed Plasma CVD and Etching Reactors,” in Proc. 8th Plasma Process. Symp., The Electrochemical Society Inc., edited by G. S. Mathad and D. W. Hess, 90-14, 185

    , 1990
  23. E. Aydil and D. Economou,

    “Experimental and Modeling Studies of Chlorine RF Glow Discharges,” in Proc. 8th Plasma Process. Symp., The Electrochemical Society Inc., edited by G. S. Mathad and D. W. Hess, 90-14, 77

    , 1990
  24. G. Barna, J. Spatafora, E. Aydil, and D. Economou,

    “Spectroscopic Measurement of Etchant Concentration Profiles in a Parallel Plate Plasma Reactor,” in Proceedings of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers, MS90-476, pp. 1-12

    , 1990
  25. J. Wosik, T. Robin, M. Davis, J. C. Wolfe, K. Foster, S. Deshmukh, A. Bensaoula, R. Sega, D. Economou, and A. Ignatiev,

    “Dependence of Millimeter Wave Surface Resistance on the Deposition Parameters of Laser Ablated Y1Ba2Cu3Ox Thin Films,” p. 539 in Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on the Science and Technology of Thin Film Superconductors, Denver, Co

    , 1990
  26. D. Economou, S.-K. Park, and G. Williams,

    “Parallel Plate Plasma Etching Reactor Modeling: Uniformity of Etching,” in Proc. of the 7th Plasma Process. Symp., The Electrochemical Society Inc., edited by G. S. Mathad, G. C. Schwartz, and D. W. Hess, 88-22, 17

    , 1988
  27. D. Economou and R. Alkire,

    In Proceedings of the Advances in the Chlor-Alkali and Chlorate Industry, The Electrochemical Society Inc.

    , 1985
  28. D. Economou and R. Alkire,

    In Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Plasma Processing, The Electrochemical Society Inc.

    , 1985

Patents

  1. “Atomic Layer Etching with Pulsed Plasmas,” Patent Applied for, December 15, 2010, with V. M. Donnelly.
    12/15/2010
  2. U.S. Patent #4,859,277 “Method for Measuring Plasma Properties in Semiconductor Processing,” with G. Barna.
  3. U.S. Patent #7,358,484 “Hyperthermal Neutral Beam Source and Method for Operating,” with L. Chen and V. Donnelly.
  4. U.S. Patent #7,883,839 “Method and Apparatus for Nanopantography,” with V. Donnelly, P. Ruchhoeft, L. Xu; S. C. Vemula; and M. Jain.